Plant Pathology Graduate Program

Akif Eskalen

Akif Eskalen
Office: 951-827-3499
Fax: 951-827-4294
Fawcett Laboratory (#232), Riverside, CA 92521
Office Hours: , not specified - not specified
Email: akif.eskalen@ucr.edu www.eskalenlab.ucr.edu

Akif Eskalen

Associate Specialist in Cooperative Extension, Plant Pathology & Associate Plant Pathologist
Fungal and Bacterial Diseases of Subtropical Crops

Project Scientist, Plant Pathology, UC Davis
Post Doctoral Fellow, Plant Pathology, UC Davis
Ph.D. Plant Pathology, University of Cukurova, Adana
M.Sc. Plant Protection, University of Kahramanmaras
B.S. Field Crop, University of Cukurova, Adana

Biography & Research Interests

Research in my lab is applied and focuses on the identification and epidemiology of branch, trunk, and root pathogens of subtropical plants: avocado, citrus and landscape trees. My lab group identifies biotic and abiotic factors driving host/pathogen interactions to develop effective control strategies.  Currently I am studying on identification, biology and epidemiology and botanical host range of Fusarium Dieback pathogens associated with shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp.) in California.


Professional Travel Award-Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources: 2012, 2013

Offices -

  • Secretary-Treasurer, American Phytopathology Society-Pacific Division, 2012-13
  • Senior Editor_Disease Note Assigning Editor, Plant Disease 2012-Present 
  • Editor_ Citrograph, California Citrus Research Board



Peer Reviewed Journal Publications 

    1. Akgul, D.S., Savas, N.G., Teker, T., Keykubat, B., Mayorquin, J.S., Eskalen, A.,  2015. Fungal trunk pathogens of Sultana Seedless vineyards in Aegean region of Turkey. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. Vol. 54:2 p.380-393.
    2. Lynch, S.C.,  Zambino, P.J.,  Scott, T.A., Eskalen, A*.,  2014. Occurrence, incidence, and associations among fungal pathogens and Agrilus auroguttatus, and their roles in Quercus agrifolia decline in California. Forest Pathology. Vol.4:1, 62-74.  
    3. O'Donnell, K., Sink, S., Libeskind-Hadas, R., Hulcr, J., Kasson, M.T., Ploetz, R., Konkol, J.N., Ploetz, J.N., Carillo, D., Kampbell, A., Duncan, R., Liyanage, P., Eskalen, A., Na, F., Geiser, D.M., Bateman, C., Freeman, S., Mendel, Z., Sharon, M., Aoki, T., Cosse, A., Rooney, A.P. 2014. Discordant phylogenies suggest repeated host shifts in the Fusarium – Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualism. Fungal Genet. Biol.
    4. Freeman, S., Sharon, M., Maymon, M., Mendel, Z., Protasov, A., Aoki, T., Eskalen, A., O'Donnell, K. 2013.Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov – a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.Mycologia.105(6):1595-1606 
    5. Eskalen, A*., Stouthamer, R., Lynch, S.C., Rugman-Jones, P., Twizeyimana, M., Gonzalez, A., Thibault, T.  2013. Host Range of Fusarium Dieback and its Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) Vector in Southern California. Plant Disease. In  97:7, 938-951
    6. Adesemoye, A.O., Mayorquin, J.S., Wang, D.H., Twizeyimana, M., Lynch, S.C., Eskalen, A*.,  2013. Identification of species of Botryosphaeriaceae causing cankers in citrus in California. Plant Disease, 98:1, 55-61.
    7. Twizeyimana, M., Forster, H., McDonald, V., Wang, D.H., Adaskaveg, J.E., Eskalen, A*.,  2013. Identification and pathogenicity of fungal pathogens associated with stem-end rot of avocado in California. Plant Disease. 97:12, 1580-1584.
    8. Lynch, S.C., Zambino, P.J., Mayorquin, J.S., Wang, D.H., Eskalen, A*.,  2013. Identification of New Fungal Pathogens of Coast Live Oak in California. Plant Disease. 97:8, 1025-1036.
    9. Kasson, M.T., O'Donnell, K*., Rooney, A.P., Sink, S., Ploetz, R., Ploetz, J.N., Konkol, J.N., Carillo, D., Freeman, S., Mendel, Z., Smith, J.E., Black, A., Hulcr, J., Bateman, C., Black, A.W., Campbell, P.R., Geering, A.D., Dann, E.K., Eskalen, A., Mohotti, K., Short, D.P., Aoki, T., Fenstermacher, K.A., Davis, D.D., Geiser, D.M. 2013. An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea on avocado and other plant hosts.Fungal Genetics and Biology. Vol. 56: p.147-157.
    10. Twizeyimam, M., McDonald, V., Mayorquin, J.S., Wang, D.H., Na, F., Akgul, D.S., Eskalen, A*. 2013. Effect of Fungicide Applications on the Management of Avocado Branch Canker (Formerly Dothiorella Canker) in California. Plant Disease. 97:7, 897-902
    11. Eskalen, A*., Faber, B., Bianchi, M. 2013. Spore Trapping and Pathogenicity of Fungi in the Botryosphaeriaceae andDioporthaceae Associated with Avocado Branch Canker in California.  Plant Disease, 97:3, 329-332
    12. Lynch, S.C., Eskalen, A*., Zambino, P., Mayorquin, J.S., Wang, D. 2013. Identification and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae Species Associated with Coast Live Oak (Quercus agrifolia) decline in southern California. Mycologia,105:1, 125-140
    13. Adesemoye, A.O., Mayorquin, J.S., Eskalen, A*. 2013. Neofusicoccum luteum as a pathogen on Tejocote (Crataegus mexicana). Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 52:123-129
    14. McDonald, V., Eskalen, A*. 2011. Botryosphaeriaceae Species Associated with Avocado Branch Cankers in California. Plant Disease, 95:11, 1465-1573
    15. Rolshausen, P.E., Urbez-Torres, J. R., Rooney-Latham, S., Eskalen, A., Smith, R .J., Gubler, W.D*. 2010. Evaluation of Pruning Wound Susceptibility and Protection Against Fungi Associated with Grapevine Trunk Diseases. Am. J. Enol. Vitic.61:113-119
    16. Eskalen, A., Feliciano, A. J., and Gubler, W. D*. 2007. Susceptibility of Grapevine Pruning Wounds and Symptom Development in Response to Infection of Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. Plant Disease, 91:9, 1100-1104
    17. Rooney, S. N., Eskalen, A. and Gubler, W. D*. 2005 Ascospore Release of Togninia minima, Cause of Esca and Grapevine Decline in California. Plant Health Progress. doi:10.1094/PHP-2005-0209-01-RS
    18. Rooney, S. N., Eskalen, A. and Gubler, W. D*. 2005. Occurrence of Togninia minima perithecia in esca-infected vineyards in California. Plant Disease. 89:8, 867-871.
    19. Rooney, S. N., Eskalen, A, and Gubler, W. D*. 2005. Teleomorph formation of Phaeoacremonium aleophilum, cause of esca and grapevine decline in California. Plant Disease, 89:2, 177-184.
    20. Gubler, W. D*., Tarlochan, T. T., Feliciano, A. J., Eskalen, A. 2004. Pathogenicity of Phaeoacremonium aleophilum andPhaeomoniella chlamydospora on grape berries in California. Phytopathologica Mediterranea. 43:1, 70-74.
    21. Gubler, W. D*., Browne, G., Baumgartner, K., Eskalen, A., Latham, S. R., Petit. E. 2004. Root diseases of grapevines in California and their control. Australian Plant Pathology. 33:157-165.
    22. Feliciano, A. J., Eskalen, A., Gubler*, W. D. 2004. Differential susceptibility of three grapevine cultivars to Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in California. Phytopathol. Mediterr. 43:66-69
    23. Buzkan, N., Krivanek, A. F., Eskalen, A., Walker, M. A*. 2003. Improvements in sample preparation and polymerase chain reaction techniques for detection of XyleIla fastidiosa in grapevine tissue. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 54:4,  307-312.
    24. Rooney, S. N., Eskalen, A., and Gubler, W. D*. 2001. Recovery of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium infilatipes from soil and grapevine tissues. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 40:351-356
    25. Eskalen, A., and Gubler, W. D*. 2001. Association of Spores of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Phaeoacremonium infilatipes, and Pm. aleophilum with Grapevine Cordons in California. Phytopathologia Mediterrenea, 40:429-432
    26. Eskalen, A., Gubler, W. D*. and Khan, A. 2001. Rootstock Susceptibility to Phaeomoniella chlamydospora andPhaeoacremonium spp. Esca and Grapevine Declines. Phytopathologia Mediterrenea, 40:433-438
    27. Caglayan, K*., Ozavci, A. Eskalen. A. 1998. In vitro Multiplication of Salep Orchids, Growing Commonly in the East Mediterranean Region of Turkey by Embriyo Culture. Tr. J. of Agriculture and Forestry. 22: 187-191

Extension Publications

    1. Aguiar, J.L., Eskalen, A. 2015. Leaf spots on spinach can be confusing. Vegetable West Grower & PCA. Vol. 19:9 p.16-17 
    2. Eskalen, A., Dimson, M., Kabashima, J., 2014. Recent findings on Polyphagous shot hole borer, Fusarium dieback- A pest-disease complex on avocado. Topics in Subtropics Newsletter. Vol.3, No.3 September-December 2014.
    3. Mayorquin, J.S., Wang, D., Barcinas, J., Bender, G.S.,Eskalen, A*., 2013. Understanding citrus branch canker and dieback in the southern California desert regions (not just Hendersonula). Citrograph. 4:3:48-51

    4. Mayorquin, J.S., Wang, D., Barcinas, J., Bender, G.S.,Eskalen, A*., 2013. Understanding citrus branch canker and dieback in the southern California desert regions (not just Hendersonula). Citrograph. 4:3:48-51

    5. Hodel, D.R., Arakelian, G.,Eskalen, A*., Stouthamer, R. 2012. Fusarium dieback: A new and serious insect-vectored disease of landscape trees. Western Arborist. Fall 2012

    6. Eskalen, A*., Stouthamer, R. 2012. New Beetle, Fungus Disease Complex Threatens Avocado. California Avocado Society, Inc. 2011-2012 Yearbook

    7. Eskalen, A*., Stouthamer, R. 2012. New Beetle, Fungus Disease Complex Threatens Avocado Producution. From The Grove. Vol. Summer 2012: p.3.

    8. Mayorquin, J.S., Downer, A.J., Hodel, D.R., Liu, A., Eskalen, A*. 2012. Ficus branch canker of indian Laurel-lef fig. Western Arborist, Spring 2012.

    9. Eskalen, A*., McDonald, V. 2011. Geographical distribution of Botryosphaeriaceae and Phomopsis/Diaporthe canker pathogens of avocado in California. California Avocado Society, Inc. 2010-2011 Yearbook, Vol. 93, pp. 87-93 .

    10. Adesemoye, A.O., Eskalen, A*.,  Mayorquin, J., Roper, C., Wang, W., Vidalakis, G., Kallsen, C., O'Connell, N. 2011. Understanding Foamy Bark rot of Fukumoto Navel. Citrograph. Vol.2, No: 7.

    11. Adesemoye, A.O., Eskalen, A*.,  Mayorquin, J., Faber, B., Bender, G., O'Connell, N., Kallsen, C., Shea, T. 2011. Current knowledge of Fusarium dry root rot of citrus. Citrograph. Vol.2, No: 7, 

    12. Adesemoye, A.O., Eskalen, A*., Faber, B., O'Connell, N. 2011. Multiple Botryosphaeria species causing "Dothiorella gummosis" in citrus. Citrograph. Vol.2, No: 2, pp. 32-35

    13. Faber, B*., Yesiloglu, T., Eskalen, A. 2010. Citrus Production in Turkey. Citrograph. 1:5, 34-36.

    14. Eskalen, A*. Vidalakis, G., O'Connell, N. 2010. Citrus Quick Decline: a disease complex. Citrograph, 1:1, 22-23

    15. Eskalen, A*., McDonald, V. 2009. Avocado Branch canker (Formerly Dothiorella canker). California Avocado Society, Inc. 2009 Yearbook, 45-54.

    16. Eskalen, A*., McDonald, V. 2009. The state of Dothiorella canker on avocado in California. Topics in Subtropics Newsletter. 7:4.

    17. Faber, B*., Bender, G., Eskalen, A. 2008. Laurel Wilt Disease in Southwest. California Avocado Society, Inc. 2008-2009 Yearbook, 45-54

First Report Disease Notes

  1. Lynch, S.C., Wang, D.H., Mayorquin, J.S., Rugman-Jones, P.F., Stouthamer, R., Eskalen, A., 2014. First Report ofGeosmithia pallida causing foamy bark canker, a new disease on coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), in association withPseudopityophthorus pubipennis (western oak bark beetle Coleoptera: Curculionidae:Scolytinae) in California. 
  2. Akgul, D.S., Savas, N.G., *Eskalen, A2013. First report of wood canker caused by Botryosphaeria obtusaB. dothidea,Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum parvum and Lasiodiplodia theobromae on grapevine in Turkey. Plant Disease. In Press.Plant Disease. 98:4:568.
  3. Rolshausen, P.E., Akgul, D.S., Perez, R., Eskalen, A., Gispert, C. 2013. First report of wood canker caused byNeoscytalidium dimidatum on grapevine in California. Plant Disease. 97:11:1511
  4. Bayoli, M.A., Halleen, F., Mostert, L., Eskalen, A. 2013. First report of Togninia minima perithecia on esca- and Petri-diseased grapevines in South AfricaPlant Disease. 97(9):1247.
  5. Mayorquin, J.S., Downer, A.J., Hodel, D.R., Liu, A., *Eskalen, A. 2012. First report of multiple species of the Botryosphaeriaceae causing bot canker disease of Indian Laurel-leaf fig in California. Plant Disease. 96(3):459.
  6. Eskalen, A*., Gonzalez, A., Wang, D.H., Twizeyimana, M. Mayorquin, J.S.Lynch, S.C. 2012. First report of a Fusarium sp. and its vector tea shot hole borer (Euwallacea fornicatus) causing Fusarium dieback on avocado in California. Plant Disease, 96:7, 1070

  7. Mayorquin, J.S., Eskalen, A*., Downer, A.J., Hodel, D.R., Liu, A. 2012. First report of multiple species of the Botryosphaericeae causing bot canker disease of indian Laurel-lef fig in California. Plant Disease, 96:3, 459

  8. Adesemoye, A. O., Eskalen, A*. 2011. First report of Eutypella spp. associated with branch canker of citrus in California.Plant Disease, 95:9, 1187.

  9. Eskalen, A*., McDonald, V. 2011. First Report of Raffaelea canadensis showing Laurel wilt disease symptoms on avocado in California. Plant Disease, 95:9, 1189.

  10. Adesemoye, A. O., Eskalen, A*. 2011. First Report of Spencermartinsia viticolaNeofusicoccum australeN. parvum causing branch canker of citrus in California. Plant Disease, 95: 6, 770.

  11. Lynch, S. C., Eskalen, A*., Zambino, P., Scott, T. 2010. First Report of Bot Canker Caused by Diplodia corticola on Coast Live Oak (Quercus agrifolia) in California. Plant Disease, 94:12, 1510

  12. McDonald, V., Lynch, S. C. Eskalen, A*. 2009. First Report of Neofusicoccum australe, N. luteum and N. parvum associated with avocado branch canker in California. Plant Disease, 93 (9) 967

  13. Rooney-Latham, S., Janosuek, C.N., Eskalen, A., Gubler, W. D*. 2008. First report of Aspergillus carbonarius causing sour rot of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) in California. Plant Disease, Plant Disease, 92:4, 651

  14. Eskalen, A., Rooney, S. N. and Gubler, W. D*. 2005 First Report of Perithecia of Phaeoacremonium viticola on grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and ash tree (Fraxinus latifolia) in California. Plant Disease 89:6, 686.

  15. Eskalen, A., Rooney, S. N. and Gubler, W. D*. 2005 Occurrence of Togninia fraxinopennsylvanica on Esca-Diseased Grapevines (Vitis vinifera) and Declining Ash Trees (Fraxinus latifolia) in California. Plant Disease 89:5, 528.

  16. Auger, J*., Esterio, M., Pérez, I., Gubler, W. D. and Eskalen, A. 2004. First Report of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora on Vitis vinfera and French American Hybrids in Chile. Plant Disease, 88: 11, 1285

Handouts & Bookmarks 

        Foamy Bark Canker of Coast Live Oak

        Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer/Fusarium Dieback)

        New beetle disease complex threatens trees

        Fusarium Dieback/Tea Shot Hole Borer (English&Spanish)

        Fusarium Dieback/Tea Shot Hole Borer (English)

        Fusarium Dieback/Tea Shot Hole Borer (Spanish)

        Citrus Dry Root Rot Disease

        Laurel Wilt Disease

        Citrus Phytophthora Root Rot Disease

        Avocado Trunk Canker Disease

        Avocado Root Rot Disease  

        Avocado Branch Canker Disease

Power Point Presentations  

       Enfermedad de la Marchitez del Laurel

       Laurel Wilt Disease_ A new threat to California avocado industry

More Information

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University of California, Riverside
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Riverside, CA 92521
Tel: (951) 827-1012

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Contact Information

Graduate Program in Plant Pathology
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Tel: (800) 735-0717 or (951) 827-5688
Fax: (951) 827-5517
E-mail: laura.mcgeehan@ucr.edu

Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology
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Tel: (951) 827-3598
Fax: (951) 827-4294
E-mail: margarita.flores@ucr.edu